All About Automotive Glass

Automotive gas has been crucial in helping reduce injuries sustained during road accidents. Much stronger and durable than standard glass used in the windows of houses, buildings and storefronts, automotive glass is manufactured differently to withstand extreme pressure and high impacts better.

A little bit of history

It was only in the turn of the 20th century that a discovery was made that would later change the way automobile manufacturers improved vehicle safety. Even then, the laminated glass used wasn’t able to adequately protect occupants during more severe collisions. As the world entered the 1930s, tempered glass began to be manufactured and was used on the side and rear windows of vehicles.

With the importance of vehicle safety becoming a bigger issue, innovator individuals began to hone current automotive glass to increase its strength. Soon, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) replaced collodian films in laminated glass and is still continued to be used to this day.

Types of automotive glass

Modern automobiles combine two types of safety glass, tempered and laminated. The first has no film but is manufactured by inducing compressive and tensile stress. This increases the strength of the glass and causes it to shatter rather than break into chunks on high impact.

In contradiction to tempered glass, laminated glass is a sandwich of three layers. The first is a sheet of glass on which is placed a layer of PVB. A second sheet of glass sandwiches the film and all three components are heated to fuse them together. When the glass breaks, the film prevents it from shattering and creates a spider web pattern.

The windshield is one of the most important glass components of a vehicle. Other than protecting occupants in the event of an accident, it supports and absorbs the weight of airbags. When bags inflate, they do so with high velocity that can injure occupants. The windshield, thus, reduces the force of the inflation.

Both laminated and tempered glass is used in applications other than automobile safety. Glass railings, tabletops, countertops and microwave ovens are a few examples.

Acrylic, a type of plastic is used in place of tempered glass in many areas including aquariums and greenhouses. Said to be 20 times more resistant to impact than tempered glass, it is, nevertheless, flammable so will never be used as safety glass in vehicles. Still, it deserves to be mentioned considering its increasingly widespread use in other applications that earlier relied on tempered glass.

Current trends

Tempered and laminated glass will continue to be used as safety glass in automobiles until such time as another better component is developed. The standard is that laminated glass is installed as windshields and tempered glass as side and rear windows. This gives occupants in a car escape routes in the event of an accident if the doors are jammed.

What some automobile manufacturers have done is to use laminated glass on rear windows to increase safety. However, there a few issues with this as laminated glass can’t be broken so escape routes in the event of jammed doors are compromised. Still, this hasn’t stopped car makers from coming up with new ideas that allow them to use laminated glass on rear windows. Vehicles with sun roofs offer a benefit in the form of an added escape route so occupants can choose to break the side windows or the sun roof if the doors jam.


In was in the early 1900’s that the hirth joint or hirth coupling was born, from the tinkering of Hellmuth Hirth, the young son of a German engineer. He was fascinated with developing new and emerging technologies for the maiden aircraft industry. Hellmuth developed the hirth coupling as a high strength locking joint used initially to connect two ends of a shaft, in gasoline engine crankshafts.

It looks like a set of teeth milled on the end profile of each half shaft. They mesh together in a self centering and self aligning locking joint. The amazing engineering of the Hirth coupling is that it offers such a high strength connection on such relatively small diameter shafts. It has since been used for reversing gears in marine applications and cooling water pumps in almost every sector including automotive, rail and nuclear.

Thus it is not surprising that Campagnolo was interested in using such a proven piece of technology in their newest cranksets designs. It has a long history of testing for strength and reliability in the most extreme environments from marine to nuclear energy.

Advantages of Using the Hirth Coupling in the Campagnolo Crankset Design:

The axle of the new Campagnolo Crankset can be spliced in the middle of the bottom bracket shell

No need for external flanges or bushings thus less rotational mass, greater pedal efficiency and smoother riding.

External bearings can now be mounted on the half spindles leaving the entire circumference of the bottom bracket shell available for a larger hollow spindle. This larger spindle makes the drivetrain more rigid.

The Campagnolo crank arms can be fused to each half axle, so no pinch bolts are necessary for crank attachment. This reduces the weight making the ultra-torque the lightest crankset in the industry.

The final benefit of using a hirth joint in the ultra torque crankset is that Campagnolo can promote themselves as having THE most easily installed crankset in the industry. With traditional tools the cups can be inserted followed by the half axles and a 10mm bolt to hold it all in place.

Certainly this particular Campagnolo component has taken technological sophistication to the limit offering cycling enthusiast something to talk about. At these is further information about Campagnolo’s bicycle parts innovations including the scoop about their newest carbon fiber forming capabilities and new ceramic bearing bottom brackets.

Operation Liberty Shield – Homeland Security Act

Operation Liberty Shield, Homeland Security Act and OSHA

Compliance can be made simple with a line of Anti-theft and Safety Lockout/tagout devices.

The TIME is NOW to protect your key company assets from future terrorist attacks and million dollar plus lawsuits that only produce huge losses. Operation Liberty Shield is a comprehensive National plan designed to increase protection for American citizens. Is your company doing it’s part to protect our freedom? Mine is.

Title IV of the Homeland Security Act, covers security of all modes of transportation. This security effort is to “coordinate efforts to protect transportation systems within the United States, including railways, highways, shipping, ports and waterways, airports, and civilian aircraft, from terrorist attack.” According to “Operation Liberty Shield”; to do your part, if you are one who carries “volatile cargo” or hazmat loads, a heightened attention to hazardous-material (hazmat) shipments and food shipments should be addressed to make these hazmat loads more secure from possible terrorist attacks.

When conducting your railroad engines, semi trucks and trailers that pull and carry hazmat loads, farm trucks that carry hazardous loads and other high end equipment, construction equipment, etc. are they at risk of theft from a terrorist attack? Most railroads, semi-trucks and construction equipment are easy targets for terrorist because they are not secure, not to mention expensive even if it does not have a hazmat load aboard and only needs protection from theft. If not secure, any company would stand to lose big from the theft of that equipment and we all lose from a terrorist attack.

Who do terrorist target?

Target industries are Trucking, Construction Equipment, Farming, Automotive, Rail Road Locomotives, RV motor coaches, cycles, boats and more. Here are some types of proper assessment of threats to consider: The type of hazardous material you transport, the frequency and quantity of shipments, the packageing typ and loose hazardous materials you may have on site.

Don’t let some thief or terrorist ruin your livelihood or ours here inside the USA and don’t let some lawsuit from an employee maybe cost you hundreds of thousands to millions. With certain products are installed onto your trucks, towmotors and different types of equipment and if lockout/tagou procedures are followed, you can minimize risk of loss from theft, accidents and even terrorist attacks.

One method of attacking key vulnerable assets such as nuclear power plants, major airports, financial centers, dams, national icons, monuments and historical attractions as well as all types of major sporting events such as ball games, Nascar race tracks, etc. is to crash a vehicle bringing explosive material, such as propane or fuel oil, in to a crowd or facility. Much stronger transportation protection is needed to protect us from terrorist attacks from this volatile cargo.

Railroad Safety Engineers, please read this next paragraph. Why? It could save your RR from a huge hazmat wreck in the future.

From a safety standpoint, certain hazmat products can cause injury and even life no matter what industry above you fall under. These physical assets must be protected according to HM-232 of the hazmat security regulation.

When certain products are placed onto RR construction equipment for example and also attacted the same to every locomotive, certain products could even prevent a future major de-railment. If you have one it could surely cost your RR millions depending upon what hazmat load was targeted and spilled. The correctly targeted terrorist attack could affect millions of people. Prevention of these hazmat loads that travel into our major cities on a daily basis must be taken very serious.

Here is an example: Say some kids or (terrorist) hop onto a backhoe or dozer sitting beside your RR track, get it running (maybe with a stardarized stamped key easily obtained) and then park that dozer onto your RR tracks just for kicks just after the daily RR inspection crew goes bye.

The bottom line? Your RR is at high risk. Better business practices can and should be in place with a one step prevention of putting the correct anti-terrorist products onto all your locomotives today. That could save your RR millions of dollars in potential damages from future lawsuits. It could also save tens of thousands of life’s if these certain products are used to prevent a hazmat load from de-railing and exploding killing untold numbers into a major city. Only your RR can protect US citizens for pennies on the dollar and its stupid easy to do. All products used should mount permenent to be more effective. Only your RR can not let these terrorist win!

What you can derive from the preceding discussion on the RR industry requires specific knowledge in order to be successful in preventing terrorist attacks.

Reviewing your own hazmat operations is vital to everyone’s success.